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Keywords:

  • cost-efficient sampling;
  • empirical likelihood;
  • hybrid design;
  • likelihood;
  • measurement error;
  • pooling design;
  • repeated measures

Measurement error (ME) problems can cause bias or inconsistency of statistical inferences. When investigators are unable to obtain correct measurements of biological assays, special techniques to quantify MEs need to be applied. Sampling based on repeated measurements is a common strategy to allow for ME. This method has been well addressed in the literature under parametric assumptions. The approach with repeated measures data may not be applicable when the replications are complicated because of cost and/or time concerns. Pooling designs have been proposed as cost-efficient sampling procedures that can assist to provide correct statistical operations based on data subject to ME. We demonstrate that a mixture of both pooled and unpooled data (a hybrid pooled–unpooled design) can support very efficient estimation and testing in the presence of ME. Nonparametric techniques have not been well investigated to analyze repeated measures data or pooled data subject to ME. We propose and examine both the parametric and empirical likelihood methodologies for data subject to ME. We conclude that the likelihood methods based on the hybrid samples are very efficient and powerful. The results of an extensive Monte Carlo study support our conclusions. Real data examples demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods in practice. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.