Interim analyses in clinical trials: Classical vs. bayesian approaches



This paper concerns interim analysis in clinical trials involving two treatments from the points of view of both classical and Bayesian inference. I criticize classical hypothesis testing in this setting and describe and recommend a Bayesian approach in which sampling stops when the probability that one treatment is the better exceeds a specified value. I consider application to normal sampling analysed in stages and evaluate the gain in average sample number as a function of the number of interim analyses.