In the case-crossover design, only cases are sampled and the hazard ratio is estimated from within-subject comparisons of exposures at the event time and in M control periods prior to the event. We consider the effect of within-subject dependence of exposures in successive time periods. We show that estimates obtained from the conditional logistic model are biased. This bias disappears if the distribution of exposures in the M+1 successive time intervals is exchangeable. In contrast, the Mantel–Haenszel estimator for the odds ratio is approximately unbiased provided that exposures are stationary. Suitable methods of analysis of case-crossover designs using maximum likelihood may be derived from cohort rather than case-control models. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.