The Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a Literate Kenyan Population
Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Stress and Health
Volume 28, Issue 3, pages 248–254, August 2012
How to Cite
Abubakar, A. and Fischer, R. (2012), The Factor Structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire in a Literate Kenyan Population. Stress and Health, 28: 248–254. doi: 10.1002/smi.1420
- Issue published online: 25 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 24 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 JUN 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 22 MAY 2011
- Manuscript Received: 24 NOV 2010
- confirmatory analysis;
- factor structure;
The study evaluated the factorial structure of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) in a population of Kenyan adults and adolescents. A sample of 1216 people aged 12–60 years completed the English version of the GHQ-12. To evaluate the factor structure of the GHQ-12, a confirmatory analysis using MPLUS was carried out. A unidimensional model of GHQ-12 as originally conceptualized did not provide a good fit for the data (Comparative Fit Index = 0.843, Tuckler Lewis Index = 0.841, Root Mean Square of Error Approximation = 0.078, Standardized Root Mean Square Residual = 0.063). Unidimensional models, which partial out the effects of negative wording showed an adequate fit to the data. Additionally, multidimensional models showed an excellent fit to the data. Based on the principles of parsimony, pattern of item loading and the correlation between identified factors in the multidimensional models, it was concluded that the GHQ−12 is a unidimensional measure whose structure is significantly influenced by wording effects. The GHQ-12, when applied to a literate population in Africa, showed similar factor structure as in other regions of the world; hence, it can be recommended for use as a screening tool for general symptoms of psychological distress. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.