Middle management involvement in strategy and its association with strategic type: A research note



This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the strategic involvement of 259 middle managers in 25 organizations. Drawing from previous clinical research, a theoretical typology of middle management roles in strategy is developed. Measures for each role are derived, and the relationship between middle management strategic involvement and Miles and Snow's (1978) strategic type is examined. Results suggest the usefulness of these measures in assessing both the level and type of middle management strategic activity. In addition, the findings show that middle managers in Prospectors report significantly higher levels of upward and divergent forms of strategic involvement than those in Analyzers and Defenders.