This study replicates and extends previous research focusing on China, to a sub-Saharan African emerging economy environment. Specifically, the study directly replicates the impact of social capital derived from the micro-managerial networking relationships and ties with top managers at other firms and government officials on macro-organizational performance using data from Ghana. This study further extends previous work by examining the impact of social capital derived from managerial social networking relationships and ties with community leaders on organizational performance. It examines how the relationship between social capital and organizational performance is contingent on an organization's competitive strategic orientation. The findings suggest that social capital developed from managerial networking and social relationships with top managers at other firms, government officials (political leaders and bureaucratic officials), and community leadership enhance organizational performance. The findings from the contingency analyses reveal some interesting trends. The impact of social capital on organizational performance differs between firms that pursue the different competitive strategies (low-cost, differentiation, and combination of low-cost and differentiation) and those who do not pursue those strategies. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.