Brain research has contributed to economics, marketing, law, and other fields. Does strategic management need neuroscience? This paper examines the potential contributions of brain research to strategic management research and practice. The paper discusses the aims and methods of neuroscience, its strengths and limitations in social and economic research, and its potential contributions to strategy. The paper identifies specific research questions at the intersection of strategy and neuroscience and appraises the prospects for substantive collaborations between neuroscientists and scholars in strategic management. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.