Sensor technology is one of the most important key technologies of the future with a constantly increasing number of applications, both in the industrial and in the private sectors. More and more gas sensors are used for the control of technical processes, in environment monitoring, healthcare, and automobiles. Consequently, the development of fast and sensitive gas sensors with small cross sensitivity is the subject of intense research, propelled by strategies based on nanoscience and -technology. Established systems can be improved and novel sensor concepts based on bottom-up approaches show that the sensor properties can be controlled by molecular design. This Review highlights the recent developments and reflects the impact of nanoscience on sensor technology.