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Keywords:

  • biosensors;
  • block copolymers;
  • lithography;
  • nanoparticles;
  • proteins
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A hole lot of protein: A method to immobilize proteins at defined positions at the single-molecule level has been developed by using templates structured by block-copolymer lithography to generate ultrahigh-density protein nanoarrays (see image). Carbohydrate–lectin (RCA or WGA) interactions on the nanoarray surface have remarkably high selectivity and reproducibility and indicate that this approach is applicable for biosensors.