• electron transfer;
  • glucose oxidase;
  • nanocomposites;
  • photoelectron spectroscopy;
  • silica immobilization


This work demonstrates a new approach for building bioinorganic interfaces by integrating biologically derived silica with single-walled carbon nanotubes to create a conductive matrix for immobilization of enzymes. Such a strategy not only allows simple integration into biodevices but presents an opportunity to intimately interface an enzyme and manifest direct electron transfer features. Biologically synthesized silica/carbon nanotube/enzyme composites are evaluated electrochemically and characterized by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Voltammetry of the composites displayed stable oxidation and reduction peaks at an optimal potential close to that of the FAD/FADH2 cofactor of immobilized glucose oxidase. The immobilized enzyme is stable for a period of one month and retains catalytic activity for the oxidation of glucose. It is demonstrated that the resulting composite can be successfully integrated into functional bioelectrodes for biosensor and biofuel cell applications.