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Keywords:

  • copper;
  • heat transfer;
  • interfaces;
  • nanorods;
  • nucleate boiling
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

On the boil: Nanostructured Cu interfaces display enhanced boiling performance at low superheated temperatures compared to untreated Cu, caused by a large increase in the density of active bubble nucleation sites. The enhancement is caused by nanobubbles, which percolate through the interconnected network of nanopores and enable stable nucleation of bubbles at microscale cavities (defects) on the film surface (see picture).