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Silica-Templated Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Tungsten Carbide/Graphitic Carbon Composites with Nanocrystalline Walls and High Surface Areas via a Temperature-Programmed Carburization Route

Authors

  • Zhangxiong Wu,

    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University Clayton, VIC3800 (Australia)
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  • Yunxia Yang,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University Clayton, VIC3800 (Australia)
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  • Dong Gu,

    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
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  • Qiang Li,

    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
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  • Dan Feng,

    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
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  • Zhenxia Chen,

    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
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  • Bo Tu,

    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
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  • Paul A. Webley,

    1. Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University Clayton, VIC3800 (Australia)
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  • Dongyuan Zhao

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China)
    2. Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University Clayton, VIC3800 (Australia)
    • Department of Chemistry Shanghai Key Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis and Innovative Materials Laboratory of Advanced Materials Fudan University Shanghai 200433 (P. R. China).
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Abstract

Ordered mesostructured tungsten carbide and graphitic carbon composites (WC/C) with nanocrystalline walls are fabricated for the first time by a temperature-programmed carburization approach with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) as a precursor and mesoporous silica materials as hard templates. The mesostructure, crystal phase, and amount of deposited graphitic carbon can be conveniently tuned by controlling the silica template (SBA-15 or KIT-6), carburizing temperature (700–1000 °C), the PTA-loading amount, and the carburizing atmosphere (CH4 or a CH4/H2 mixture). A high level of deposited carbon is favorable for connecting and stabilizing the WC nanocrystallites to achieve high mesostructural regularity, as well as promoting the carburization reaction. Meanwhile, large pore sizes and high mesoporosity of the silica templates can promote WC-phase formation. These novel, ordered, mesoporous WC/C nanocomposites with high surface areas (74–169 m2 g−1), large pore volumes (0.14–0.17 cm3 g−1), narrow pore-size distributions (centered at about 3 nm), and very good oxidation resistance (up to 750°C) have potential applications in fuel-cell catalysts and nanodevices.

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