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Mimicking Electrodeposition in the Gas Phase: A Programmable Concept for Selected-Area Fabrication of Multimaterial Nanostructures

Authors

  • Jesse J. Cole,

    1. Electrical Engineering University of Minnesota Rm. 4-178, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (USA)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • En-Chiang Lin,

    1. Electrical Engineering University of Minnesota Rm. 4-178, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (USA)
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    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Chad R. Barry,

    1. Electrical Engineering University of Minnesota Rm. 4-178, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (USA)
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  • Heiko O. Jacobs

    Corresponding author
    1. Electrical Engineering University of Minnesota Rm. 4-178, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (USA)
    • Electrical Engineering University of Minnesota Rm. 4-178, 200 Union St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (USA).
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Abstract

An in situ gas-phase process that produces charged streams of Au, Si, TiO2, ZnO, and Ge nanoparticles/clusters is reported together with a programmable concept for selected-area assembly/printing of more than one material type. The gas-phase process mimics solution electrodeposition whereby ions in the liquid phase are replaced with charged clusters in the gas phase. The pressure range in which the analogy applies is discussed and it is demonstrated that particles can be plated into pores vertically (minimum resolution 60 nm) or laterally to form low-resistivity (48 µΩ cm) interconnects. The process is applied to the formation of multimaterial nanoparticle films and sensors. The system works at atmospheric pressure and deposits material at room temperature onto electrically biased substrate regions. The combination of pumpless operation and parallel nozzle-free deposition provides a scalable tool for printable flexible electronics and the capability to mix and match materials.

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