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High-Concentration Solvent Exfoliation of Graphene



A method is demonstrated to prepare graphene dispersions at high concentrations, up to 1.2 mg mL−1, with yields of up to 4 wt% monolayers. This process relies on low-power sonication for long times, up to 460 h. Transmission electron microscopy shows the sonication to reduce the flake size, with flake dimensions scaling as t−1/2. However, the mean flake length remains above 1 µm for all sonication times studied. Raman spectroscopy shows defects are introduced by the sonication process. However, detailed analysis suggests that predominately edge, rather than basal-plane, defects are introduced. These dispersions are used to prepare high-quality free-standing graphene films. The dispersions can be heavily diluted by water without sedimentation or aggregation. This method facilitates graphene processing for a range of applications.