Direct Detection of Heroin Metabolites Using a Competitive Immunoassay Based on a Carbon-Nanotube Liquid-Gated Field-Effect Transistor


  • J.N.T. and S.G. contributed equally to this work.


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A carbon-nanotube-based liquid-gated field-effect transistor is employed for the detection of heroin narcotics. Detection of monoacetylmorphine down to 15 pg mL−1 is accomplished by means of a competitive immunoassay protocol in conjunction with charged Au nanoparticles that augment the electrostatic perturbance generated from the receptor–ligand interaction coupled with the carbon nanotubes.