Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are a promising material for drug delivery. In this Full Paper, MSNs are first shown to be well tolerated, as demonstrated by serological, hematological, and histopathological examinations of blood samples and mouse tissues after MSN injection. Biodistribution studies using human cancer xenografts are carried out with in vivo imaging and fluorescent microscopy imaging, as well as with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The results show that MSNs preferentially accumulate in tumors. Finally, the drug-delivery capability of MSNs is demonstrated by following tumor growth in mice treated with camptothecin-loaded MSNs. These results indicate that MSNs are biocompatible, preferentially accumulate in tumors, and effectively deliver drugs to the tumors and suppress tumor growth.