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Ratiometric Optical Sensing of Chloride Ions with Organic Fluorophore–Gold Nanoparticle Hybrids: A Systematic Study of Design Parameters and Surface Charge Effects



Colloidal nanoparticles are often stabilized by high surface charges. These create an electrical potential that may strongly affect the concentration of dissolved ions, which presents a formidable problem for the use of nanoparticles in ion-sensing applications. This effect is investigated systematically with organic fluorophore–gold nanoparticle hybrids, which have a chloride-sensitive fluorophore attached at varying distances from their surface. The distance-dependent fluorescence response is quantitatively assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy.