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Ratiometric Optical Sensing of Chloride Ions with Organic Fluorophore–Gold Nanoparticle Hybrids: A Systematic Study of Design Parameters and Surface Charge Effects

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Abstract

Colloidal nanoparticles are often stabilized by high surface charges. These create an electrical potential that may strongly affect the concentration of dissolved ions, which presents a formidable problem for the use of nanoparticles in ion-sensing applications. This effect is investigated systematically with organic fluorophore–gold nanoparticle hybrids, which have a chloride-sensitive fluorophore attached at varying distances from their surface. The distance-dependent fluorescence response is quantitatively assessed using fluorescence spectroscopy.

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