Monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were used to demonstrate how surface chemistry influences the uptake, distribution, and excretion of nanomaterials in Japanese medaka fish. Hydrophilic AuNPs were found primarily in the fish intestines, showing no obvious health effects on the fish. Hydrophobic cationic AuNPs has a broad distribution in fish organs and lead ultimately to fish mortality in < 24 h.
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