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Keywords:

  • phage;
  • nanofibers;
  • bio-inorganic materials;
  • biomimetic materials;
  • biomineralization
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Filamentous M13 phage is genetically engineered to become anionic by fusing a negatively charged peptide to its major coat protein (pVIII). The cationic precursors of hydroxylapatite (HAP) such as Ca2+ ions induce the self-assembly of the negatively charged phage into a nanofibrous structure in the presence of anionic precursors such as PO43− ions. The cationic and anionic precursors are accumulated within the nanofibrous structure, leading to the formation of oriented nanocrystalline HAP.