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Tunable Bandgap in Graphene by the Controlled Adsorption of Water Molecules



Lack of a bandgap limits the utilization of graphene in nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. It is shown that a tunable bandgap of up to ≈0.2 eV can be engineered by controlled adsorption of water molecules to a graphene surface. The effect is reversible, and the energy gap reduces to ≈0.029 eV as the humidity is brought down to zero.

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