Cellular Uptake, Intracellular Trafficking, and Cytotoxicity of Nanomaterials

Authors

  • Feng Zhao,

    1. CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China
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  • Ying Zhao,

    1. National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China
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  • Ying Liu,

    1. National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China
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  • Xueling Chang,

    1. CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China
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  • Chunying Chen,

    Corresponding author
    1. CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China
    2. National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China
    • CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China.
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  • Yuliang Zhao

    Corresponding author
    1. CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China
    2. National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing 100190, China
    • CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100049, China.
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Abstract

The interactions of nanoparticles with the soft surfaces of biological systems like cells play key roles in executing their biomedical functions and in toxicity. The discovery or design of new biomedical functions, or the prediction of the toxicological consequences of nanoparticles in vivo, first require knowledge of the interplay processes of the nanoparticles with the target cells. This article focusses on the cellular uptake, location and translocation, and any biological consequences, such as cytotoxicity, of the most widely studied and used nanoparticles, such as carbon-based nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, and quantum dots. The relevance of the size and shape, composition, charge, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles in cells is considered. The intracellular uptake pathways of the nanoparticles and the cellular responses, with potential signaling pathways activated by nanoparticle interactions, are also discussed.

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