Measurement of Mass Transfer during Dip-Pen Nanolithography with Phospholipids

Authors

  • Soma Biswas,

    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 76344 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Current affiliation:
    1. S.B. and M.H. contributed equally to this work.
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  • Michael Hirtz,

    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 76344 Karlsruhe, Germany
    Current affiliation:
    1. S.B. and M.H. contributed equally to this work.
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  • Harald Fuchs

    Corresponding author
    1. Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 76344 Karlsruhe, Germany
    2. Physikalisches Institut, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität, and Center for Nanotechnology (CeNTech), 48149 Münster, Germany
    • Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) and Karlsruhe Nano Micro Facility (KNMF), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (KIT), 76344 Karlsruhe, Germany.
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Abstract

Dip-pen nanolithography (DPN) has been extensively used before for patterning surfaces; however a complete understanding of the ink transport mechanisms is still lacking. Moreover, quality control of the fabricated structures is a bottleneck in DPN fabrication, and one aspect of this is the quantification of the ink mass transfer to the substrate during the lithographic process. There is a demand for measuring the exact amount of molecules deposited on a surface by lithographic methods, especially for biological applications. This article demonstrates a quantitative method for measuring the amount of ink transferred onto the substrate in DPN with phospholipids by dynamic force spectroscopy. To achieve this, the harmonic oscillation of a microcantilever in an atomic force microscope is used, obtaining picogram mass sensitivity in the determination of mass deposition.

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