In-Situ Observation of Nucleation and Growth of PbSe Magic-Sized Nanoclusters and Regular Nanocrystals

Authors

  • Kui Yu,

    Corresponding author
    1. Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6, Canada
    • Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6, Canada.
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  • Jianying Ouyang,

    1. Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6, Canada
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  • Donald M. Leek

    1. Steacie Institute for Molecular Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6, Canada
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Abstract

In-situ observation of the temporal evolution of the absorption of PbSe nanocrystals (NCs) via a low-temperature noninjection approach is presented. Based on a model reaction of lead oleate (Pb(OA)2) and n-trioctylphosphine selenide (TOPSe) in 1-octadecene at 35–80 °C, the use of commercially available TOP (90 or 97%) in affecting the formation of the NCs is explored. TOPSe solutions made from TOP 90% exhibited higher reactivity than those made from TOP 97%. 31P NMR spectroscopy detected no dioctylphosphine selenide (DOPSe) but some DOP in ≈1.0 M TOPSe/TOP solution (made from TOP 90%), as well as no diphenylphosphine selenide (DPPSe) when DPP was added to the ≈1.0 M solution. Hence, it is proposed that, for the formation of PbSe monomers, an indirect pathway dominates with the formation of a Pb–P complex/intermediate, which results from the activation of Pb(OA)2 by a phosphine compound (such as DPP, DOP, or TOP) and in turn reacts with TOPSe. With the use of TOP 90% and the addition of secondary phosphine DPP, the formation of PbSe magic-sized nanoclusters (MSNCs) and regular NCs (RNCs) is investigated. With proper tuning of the synthesis conditions, the formation of various PbSe MSNCs versus RNCs is monitored in situ with versus without the addition of DPP, or at different reaction temperatures but otherwise identical synthetic formulation and reaction parameters. Accordingly, the degree of supersaturation (DS) of the PbSe monomer affecting the development of these PbSe MSNCs versus RNCs is proposed; the higher the DS, the more the MSNCs are favored. Also, surface-determined cluster–cluster aggregation is proposed to be the growth mechanism for both the RNCs and MSNCs. For the former, quantized growth is followed by continuous growth. For the latter, the sizes of the magic-sized families are calculated.

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