The endocytosis of nanoparticles by cells is of significant interest in various biomedical applications, including drug delivery and targeted therapy. An approach is developed to noninvasively detect nanoparticle endocytosis by living cells using magneto-photoacoustic (MPA) imaging. Using macrophages, it is demonstrated that the nanoparticles endocytosed by cells generate significantly larger MPA signals than the same concentration of nanoparticles present in the vicinity of macrophages. Overall, MPA imaging can simultaneously detect both the delivery and cellular endocytosis of nanoparticles.
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