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Keywords:

  • field-effect transistors;
  • graphene;
  • liquid gating;
  • nanopipettes;
  • pH sensing
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Graphene sheets made by chemical vapor deposition are transferred onto a glass nanopipette to form graphene strips. Two strips are connected at the nanopipette tip end to form a transistor channel. This graphene-based transistor can be operated in a liquid-gating condition, thereby allowing the electrical detection of the pH value of a droplet with submicroliter volume.