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Mechanism of Cellular Uptake of Graphene Oxide Studied by Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

Authors

  • Jie Huang,

    1. Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125, P.R. China
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  • Cheng Zong,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P.R. China
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  • He Shen,

    1. Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125, P.R. China
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  • Min Liu,

    1. Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125, P.R. China
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  • Biao Chen,

    1. Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125, P.R. China
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  • Bin Ren,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P.R. China
    • State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, P.R. China.
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  • Zhijun Zhang

    Corresponding author
    1. Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125, P.R. China
    • Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125, P.R. China
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Abstract

The last few years have witnessed rapid development of biological and medical applications of graphene oxide (GO), such as drug/gene delivery, biosensing, and bioimaging. However, little is known about the cellular uptake mechanism and pathway of GO. In this work, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy is employed to investigate the cellular internalization of GO loaded with Au nanoparticles (NPs) by Ca Ski cells. The presence of Au NPs on the surface of GO enables detection of enhanced intrinsic Raman signals of GO inside the cell. The SERS results reveal that GO is distributed inhomogeneously inside the cell. Furthermore, internalization of Au-GO into Ca Ski cells is mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and is an energy-dependent process.

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