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Substrate-Baited Nanoparticles: A Catch and Release Strategy for Enzyme Recognition and Harvesting

Authors

  • Michael A. Daniele,

    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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  • Yuriy P. Bandera,

    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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  • Deepti Sharma,

    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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  • Parul Rungta,

    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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  • Ryan Roeder,

    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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  • Michael G. Sehorn,

    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, Department of Genetics and Biochemistry, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
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  • Stephen H. Foulger

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA
    • Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Department of Bioengineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634, USA.
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Abstract

The isolation of a single type of protein from a complex mixture is vital for the characterization of the function, structure, and interactions of the protein of interest and is typically the most laborious aspect of the protein purification process. In this work, a model system is utilized to show the efficacy of synthesizing a “baited” nanoparticle to capture and recycle enzymes (proteins that catalyze chemical reactions) from crude cell lysate. Enzyme trapping and recycling is illustrated with the carbazole 1,9a-dioxygenase (CARDO) system, an enzyme important in bioremediation and natural product synthesis. The enzymes are baited with azide-modified carbazolyl moieties attached to poly(propargyl acrylate) nanoparticles through a click transformation. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis indicates the single-step procedure to immobilize the enzymes on the particles is capable of significantly concentrating the protein from raw lysate and sequestering all required components of the protein to maintain bioactivity. These results establish a universal model applicable to concentrating and extracting known substrate–protein pairs, but it can be an invaluable tool in recognizing unknown protein–ligand affinities.

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