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Keywords:

  • light-emitting diodes;
  • gallium nitride;
  • laser lift-off (LLO);
  • transfer printing;
  • flexible electronics
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

A method for forming efficient, ultrathin GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and for their assembly onto foreign substances is reported. The LEDs have lateral dimensions ranging from ∼1 mm × 1 mm to ∼25 μm × 25 μm. Quantitative experimental and theoretical studies show the benefits of small device geometry on thermal management, for both continuous and pulsed-mode operation, the latter of which suggests the potential use of these technologies in bio-integrated contexts.