A versatile system combining chemotherapy with photothermal therapy for cancer cells using Pd nanosheet-covered hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles is reported. While the hollow mesoporous silica core can be used to load anticancer drugs (i.e., doxorubicin) for chemotherapy, the Pd nanosheets on the surface of particles can convert NIR light into heat for photothermal therapy. More importantly, the loading of Pd nanosheets on hollow mesoporous silica nanospheres can dramatically increase the amount of cellular internalization of the Pd nanosheets: almost 11 times higher than the unloaded Pd nanosheets. The as-prepared nanocomposites efficiently deliver both drugs and heat to cancer cells to improve the therapeutic efficiency with minimal side effects. Compared with chemotherapy or photothermal therapy alone, the combination of chemotherapy and phototherapy can significantly improve the therapeutic efficacy, exhibiting a synergistic effect.