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Keywords:

  • blood-testis barrier;
  • gold nanoparticles;
  • male fertility;
  • reproductive toxicity
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

ω-Methoxy and ω-aminoethyl poly(ethylene glycol)-modified 14-nm gold nanoparticles can accumulate in mouse testes, pass through the blood–testis barrier, and enter germ cells. Furthermore, PEG–NH2@AuNP accumulate more easier in the testes and increase plasma T levels. However, these two gold nanoparticle types have no effect on male fertility, fetal survival, or fetal development.