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Keywords:

  • autophagy;
  • titanium dioxide;
  • nanoparticles;
  • nanotoxicology;
  • keratinocytes
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Understanding the mechanisms of cell-nanomaterial interactions is vital in harnessing the potential of using nanomaterials in biomedical applications. By immuno-labeling of LC3 and TEM analysis, it is found that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are internalized by human keratinocytes and induce autophagy. Autophagy appears to play a cytoprotective role in response to toxicity influence exerted by the nanoparticles.