Emerging In Vitro Models for Safety Screening of High-Volume Production Nanomaterials under Environmentally Relevant Exposure Conditions

Authors

  • Mustafa Hussain Kathawala,

    1. Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore, Phone: +65 6790-4603; Fax: +65 6790-9081
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  • Sijing Xiong,

    1. Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore, Phone: +65 6790-4603; Fax: +65 6790-9081
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  • Mark Richards,

    1. Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, 180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8, Singapore 569830, Singapore, Phone: +65 6550-1517; Fax: +65 6552-0844
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  • Kee Woei Ng,

    1. Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore, Phone: +65 6790-4603; Fax: +65 6790-9081
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  • Saji George,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, 180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8, Singapore 569830, Singapore, Phone: +65 6550-1517; Fax: +65 6552-0844
    • Centre for Sustainable Nanotechnology, School of Chemical & Life Sciences, Nanyang Polytechnic, 180 Ang Mo Kio Avenue 8, Singapore 569830, Singapore, Phone: +65 6550-1517; Fax: +65 6552-0844.
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  • Say Chye Joachim Loo

    Corresponding author
    1. Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore, Phone: +65 6790-4603; Fax: +65 6790-9081
    • Nanyang Technological University, School of Materials Science and Engineering, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798, Singapore, Phone: +65 6790-4603; Fax: +65 6790-9081
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Abstract

The rising production of nanomaterial-based consumer products has raised safety concerns. Testing these with animal and other direct models is neither ethically nor economically viable, nor quick enough. This review aims to discuss the strength of in vitro testing, including the use of 2D and 3D cultures, stem cells, and tissue constructs, etc., which would give fast and repeatable answers of a highly specific nature, while remaining relevant to in vivo outcomes. These results can then be combined and the overall toxicity predicted with relative accuracy. Such in vitro models can screen potentially toxic nanomaterials which, if required, can undergo further stringent studies in animals. The cyto- and phototoxicity of some high-volume production nanomaterials, using in vitro models, is also reviewed.

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