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Applications and Potential Toxicity of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

Authors

  • Gang Liu,

    Corresponding author
    1. Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 China
    2. Sichuan Key Laboratory of Medical Imaging, North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong, 637007, China
    • Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 China
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  • Jinhao Gao,

    1. Center for Molecular Imaging and Translational Medicine, School of Public Health, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005 China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China
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  • Hua Ai,

    1. National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, China
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  • Xiaoyuan Chen

    Corresponding author
    1. Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, United States
    • Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine (LOMIN), National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD 20892, United States.
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Abstract

Owing to their unique physical and chemical properties, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have become a powerful platform in many diverse aspects of biomedicine, including magnetic resonance imaging, drug and gene delivery, biological sensing, and hyperthermia. However, the biomedical applications of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles arouse serious concerns about their pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and toxicity. In this review, the updated research on the biomedical applications and potential toxicity of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is summarized. Much more effort is required to develop magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with improved biocompatible surface engineering to achieve minimal toxicity, for various applications in biomedicine.

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