Parallel dip-pen nanodisplacement lithography (p-DNL) is used for high resolution, serial fabrication of 3D structures of polymer brushes over millimeter length scales. With p-DNL, 2D initiator templates consisting of arrays of nanolines and nanodots with rationally designed lateral spacings are fabricated in parallel via a locally tip-induced nanodisplacement process, from which highly defined 3D polymer structures are grown via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization.
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