Graphene Oxide, But Not Fullerenes, Targets Immunoproteasomes and Suppresses Antigen Presentation by Dendritic Cells



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Graphene oxide (GO) and C60- or C60-TRIS fullerenes, internalized by murine dendritic cells (DCs), differently affect their abilities to present antigens to T-cells. While C60-fullerenes stimulate the ovalbumin-specific MHC class I-restricted T-cell response, GO impairs the stimulatory potential of DCs. In contrast to C60-fullerenes, GO decreases the intracellular levels of LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits required for processing of protein antigens. This is important for the development of DC-based vaccines.