Antigen-specific activation of cytotoxic T cells can be enhanced up to three-fold more than soluble controls when using functionalized bundled carbon nanotube substrates (bCNTs). To overcome the denaturing effects of direct adsorption on bCNTs, a simple but robust method is demonstrated to stabilize the T cell stimulus on carbon nanotube substrates through non-covalent attachment of the linker neutravidin.
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