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Keywords:

  • porous alumina;
  • anodization;
  • hierarchical structures;
  • titania nanotube arrays;
  • templates
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

Hierarchical micro-/nano-structures made easy. By using extremely rough, chemically etched microstructured aluminium foils, anodization in phosphoric acid under very harsh conditions, e.g., 10 wt% phosphoric acid and room temperature, can be repeatedly accomplished without suffering from breakdown. As a result, an alumina membrane with a three-dimensionally distributed nanopore structure is formed, which can be used as a general template to fabricate hierarchical micro-/nano-structures.