The development of classification nano-structure–activity Relationships (nano-SARs) of nanoparticle (NP) bioactivity is presented with the aim of demonstrating the integration of multiparametric toxicity/bioactivity assays to arrive at statistically meaningful class definitions (i.e., bioactivity/inactivity endpoints), as well as the implications of nano-SAR applicability domains and decision boundaries. Nano-SARs are constructed based on a dataset of 44 iron oxide core nanoparticles (NPs), used in molecular imaging and nano-sensing, containing bioactivity profiles for four cell types and four different assays. Class definitions are developed on the basis of ‘hit’ (i.e., significant bioactivity) identification analysis and self-organizing map based consensus clustering; these class definitions enable construction of nano-SARs of a high classification accuracy (>78%) with different NP descriptor combinations that include primary size, spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxivities, and zeta potentials. Analysis of the nano-SAR performance for different class definitions suggests that H4 (i.e., class with at least four hits) is a reasonable endpoint (from a ‘regulatory’ viewpoint) for keeping the level of false negatives (i.e., incorrect labeling of bioactive NPs as inactive) low. The establishment of a quantitative nano-SAR applicability domain is demonstrated, making use of a probability density with the H4 class definition and naive Bayesian classifier (NBC) model (with spin-lattice relaxivity and zeta potential as descriptors). Decision boundaries are determined for the above H4/NBC nano-SAR for different acceptance levels of false negative to false positive predictions, illustrating a practical approach that may assist in regulatory decision making with a consideration of reducing the likelihood of identifying bioactive NPs as being inactive.