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Graphene-Induced Adsorptive and Optical Artifacts During In Vitro Toxicology Assays



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Graphene materials can deplete essential micronutrients from cell culture media and potentially interfere with probe dyes used during in vitro analysis of cell viability and function by (1) adsorbing dyes before they can interact with their target biomolecule, (2) quenching fluorescence after the interaction, and/or (3) absorbing or scattering light, which are issues for both colorimetric and fluorescent assays.