Graphene, a two-dimensional giant-molecule of sp2-bonded carbon atoms, provides a perfect platform for studying free radical reaction chemistry in two-dimensions, which holds promise to control the chemical functionality of graphene. Free-radical photochlorination of graphene is used as an example to investigate the thickness, stacking order, and single- and double-side dependent reactivity in graphene. Anomalously low reactivity is observed in the photochlorination of AB-stacked bilayer graphene in comparison with that of few-layer graphene. Double-sided chlorination of graphene shows higher reactivity and chlorine coverage than single-sided reaction. It is also experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that chlorine free radicals at low coverage prefer to form a stable charge-transfer complex with graphene, which highly enhances graphene's conductivity and simultaneously generates a pseudo-bandgap through noninvasive doping. Moreover, the initial accumulation of chlorine radicals is considered as the rate-determining step of photochlorination of graphene.
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