A colorized neurite of a rat cortical neuron is shown growing on a pattern of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The background image illustrates a larger area of AuNPs assembled in a pattern predefined by nanoimprint lithography. The AuNPs are equipped with different surface functionalities by D. Mayer and co-workers on page 3357, and used to investigate patterned neuron surface adhesion and neurite outgrowth. The neurites can be guided between or along the pattern using bare AuNPs or particles with positively charged ligands. Surface areas are easily switched between being cellattractive/repulsive by simple thiol chemistry.