Get access

Ultrathin Calcium Silicate Hydrate Nanosheets with Large Specific Surface Areas: Synthesis, Crystallization, Layered Self-Assembly and Applications as Excellent Adsorbents for Drug, Protein, and Metal Ions

Authors

  • Jin Wu,

    1. State Key Laboratory of High Performance, Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, PR China, Tel.: +86-21-52412616; Fax: +86-21-52413122
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ying-Jie Zhu,

    Corresponding author
    1. State Key Laboratory of High Performance, Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, PR China, Tel.: +86-21-52412616; Fax: +86-21-52413122
    • State Key Laboratory of High Performance, Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, PR China, Tel.: +86-21-52412616; Fax: +86-21-52413122.
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Feng Chen

    1. State Key Laboratory of High Performance, Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, PR China, Tel.: +86-21-52412616; Fax: +86-21-52413122
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

A simple and low-cost solution synthesis is reported for low-crystalline 1.4 nm tobermorite-like calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) ultrathin nanosheets with a thickness of ∼2.8 nm and with a large specific surface area (SSA), via a reaction-rate-controlled precipitation process. The BET SSA of the CSH ultrathin nanosheets can reach as high as 505 m2 g−1. The CSH ultrathin nanosheets have little cytotoxicity and can be converted to anhydrous calcium silicate (ACS) ultrathin nanosheets with a well preserved morphology via a heat treatment process. The crystallinity of CSH ultrathin nanosheets can be improved by solvothermal treatment in water/ethanol binary solvents or a single solvent of water, producing well-crystalline 1.1 nm tobermorite-like CSH nanobelts or nanosheets. CSH ultrathin nanosheets acting as building blocks can self-assemble into layered nanostructures via three different routes. The CSH ultrathin nanosheets are investigated as promising adsorbents for protein (hemoglobin, Hb), drug (ibuprofen, IBU), and metal ions (Cr3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Pb2+). The highest adsorbed percentages of Hb and IBU are found to be 83% and 94%, respectively. The highest adsorption capacities of Hb and IBU are found to be as high as 878 milligram Hb per gram CSH and 2.2 gram IBU per gram CSH, respectively. The ppm level metal ions can be totally adsorbed from aqueous solution in just a few minutes. Thus, the CSH ultrathin nanosheets are a promising candidate as excellent adsorbents in the biomedical field and for waste water treatment. Several empirical laws are summarized based on the adsorption profiles of Hb and IBU using CSH ultrathin nanosheets as the adsorbent. Furthermore, the ACS ultrathin nanosheets as adsorbents for Hb protein and IBU drug are investigated.

Ancillary