A cationic surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route is developed for the facile synthesis of graphene-like MoS2/graphene (GL-MoS2/G) composites based on the hydrothermal reduction of Na2MoO4 and graphene oxide sheets with L-cysteine in the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), following by annealling in N2 atmosphere. The GL-MoS2/G composites are characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The effects of CTAB concentration on the microstructures and electrochemical performances of the composites for reversible Li+ storage are investigated. It is found that the layer number of MoS2 sheets decreases with increasing CTAB concentration. The GL-MoS2 sheets in the composites are few-layer in the case of 0.01∼0.03 mol L−1 CTAB of hydrothermal solution and single-layer in the case of 0.05 mol L−1 CTAB. The GL-MoS2/G composites prepared with 0.01–0.02 mol·L−1 of CTAB solution exhibit a higher reversible capacity of 940–1020 mAh g−1, a greater cycle stability, and a higher rate capability than other samples. The exceptional electrochemical performance of GL-MoS2/G composites for reversible Li+ storage could be attributed to an effective integration of GL-MoS2 sheets and graphene that maximizes the synergistic interaction between them.