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Induced Adaptation of Bacillus sp. to Antimicrobial Nanosilver

Authors

  • Cindy Gunawan,

    1. ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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  • Wey Yang Teoh,

    Corresponding author
    1. Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR
    • Wey Yang Teoh, Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.

      Rose Amal, ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

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  • Christopher P. Marquis,

    1. School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
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  • Rose Amal

    Corresponding author
    1. ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    • Wey Yang Teoh, Clean Energy and Nanotechnology (CLEAN) Laboratory, School of Energy and Environment, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR.

      Rose Amal, ARC Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia

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Abstract

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The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied.

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