Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) electrodes, prepared by anodization of titanium, are employed to probe the electron-transfer process of cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) by surface-enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy. Concomitant with the increased nanoscopic surface roughness of TiO2, achieved by raising the anodization voltage from 10 to 20 V, the enhancement factor increases from 2.4 to 8.6, which is rationalized by calculations of the electric field enhancement. Cyt b5 is immobilized on TiO2 under preservation of its native structure but it displays a non-ideal redox behavior due to the limited conductivity of the electrode material. The electron-transfer efficiency which depends on the crystalline phase of TiO2 has to be improved by appropriate doping for applications in bioelectrochemistry.
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