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Keywords:

  • design;
  • nanomaterials;
  • nanotoxicology;
  • noncovalent interactions;
  • proteins
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

When nanomaterials (NMs) enter biosystems, they interact with various biomolecules, especially proteins, forming a protein corona on the surface. Understanding how nanoparticles (NPs) interact with proteins is crucial for bioapplications and for the biosafety of NMs. On page 1635, A. Cao and co-workers summarize the current understanding of protein–NP interactions. Guidelines for improving bioapplication performance and reducing the potential biosafety hazard of NMs by designing the protein–NP interactions are discussed, along with future directions and challenges in this exciting field.