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Keywords:

  • biological fluids;
  • biomimetics;
  • biomineralization;
  • mineralo-protein complexes;
  • nanobacteria
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

The properties of biological mineralo-protein nanoparticles that form spontaneously in human body fluids are described by J. D. Young and co-workers on page 2297. Concentrations of serum and precipitating ions near physiological levels produce small biomimetic nanoparticles that grow steadily in size but retain a similar protein profile irrespective of size. These biological mineral particles are phagocytosed by immune cells and they activate pro-inflammatory responses in a size-dependent manner.