• viruses;
  • nanoparticles;
  • templated assembly;
  • nanoarchitecture
Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

As a typical group of biomacromolecules, virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs), which are nanocages or nanorods assembled from viral capsid proteins, have been widely exploited as templates for the fabrication of complex nanoarchitectures (NAs). Foreign materials can be positioned in the inner cavity or on the outer surface of VNPs. Simultaneous use of the inner and outer space of VNPs facilitates integration of multiple functionalities in a single NA. Strategies for VNP-templated fabrication of NAs and their applications are discussed in this review by F. Li and Q. Wang on page 230.