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Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 12

June 25, 2014

Volume 10, Issue 12

Pages 2309–2502

  1. Cover Picture

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      Organic Solar Cells: Exfoliated and Partially Oxidized MoS2 Nanosheets by One-Pot Reaction for Efficient and Stable Organic Solar Cells (Small 12/2014) (page 2309)

      Jin-Mun Yun, Yong-Jin Noh, Cheol-Ho Lee, Seok-In Na, Sungho Lee, Seung Mu Jo, Han-Ik Joh and Dong-Yu Kim

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470068

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Exfoliated and partially oxidized MoS2 nanosheets as a hole extraction layer for efficient and stable organic solar cells (OSCs) is reported on page 2319 by H.-I. Joh, and colleagues. Incorporation of a simply prepared MoS2 nanosheet by solution-processing into OSCs dramatically increases the cell efficiency and device stability. These results will allow a successful utilization for high-performance OSCs with excellent stability and will advance the realization of graphene analogue-based solution-processable optoelectronic devices.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Metallofullerenols: Polyhydroxylated Metallofullerenols Stimulate IL-1β Secretion of Macrophage through TLRs/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation (Small 12/2014) (page 2310)

      Zhiyun Chen, Ying Liu, Baoyun Sun, Han Li, Jinquan Dong, Lijuan Zhang, Liming Wang, Peng Wang, Yuliang Zhao and Chunying Chen

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470069

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metallofullerenols uptaken by macrophages can promote the production of inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β by triggering two signaling pathways indepentently. As reported on page 2362 by C. Chen and co-workers, fullerenols prime macrophages to express pro-IL-1β viaTLRs/MyD88 pathway and subsequently activate NF-κB. Importantly, they activate NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages, which is required for processing pro-IL-1β into mature IL-1β. These findings contibute to better understanding their underlying mechanism of antitumor chemotherapeutics and good immunoregulatory effects.

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      Photoelectronics: Optimization of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Photoelectrode for Realization of Visible Light Hydrogen Generation (Small 12/2014) (page 2504)

      Hyo-Jin Ahn, Myeong-Jong Kim, Kwanghyun Kim, Myung-Joon Kwak and Ji-Hyun Jang

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470073

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      The quantum-dot sensitization of a commercial TiO2 photoelectrode with maximized light harvesting capacity leads to the realization of hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation. On page 2325, J.-H. Jang and team demonstrate the greatly improved performance of an electrode with light-harvesting capability, suggesting the proposed route as an effective strategy for electrode materials in photoconversion systems.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Small 12/2014)

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470072

  5. Contents

    1. Top of page
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    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
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      Contents: (Small 12/2014) (pages 2311–2318)

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470070

  6. Communications

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    1. Exfoliated and Partially Oxidized MoS2 Nanosheets by One-Pot Reaction for Efficient and Stable Organic Solar Cells (pages 2319–2324)

      Jin-Mun Yun, Yong-Jin Noh, Cheol-Ho Lee, Seok-In Na, Sungho Lee, Seung Mu Jo, Han-Ik Joh and Dong-Yu Kim

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303648

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      A facile and efficient synthesis of a solution-processable MoO3/MoS2 featuring uniformly decorated MoO3 nanoparticles onto exfoliated MoS2 nanosheets is realized via a one-step oxidation and spontaneous exfoliation method using hydrogen peroxide. By using MoO3/MoS2 as a hole extraction layer in organic solar cells, high efficiencies, regardless of annealing conditions of the interfacial layer, and excellent long-term stability are demonstrated.

    2. Optimization of Quantum Dot-Sensitized Photoelectrode for Realization of Visible Light Hydrogen Generation (pages 2325–2330)

      Hyo-Jin Ahn, Myeong-Jong Kim, Kwanghyun Kim, Myung-Joon Kwak and Ji-Hyun Jang

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303830

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The quantum-dot sensitization of a commercial TiO2 photoelectrode with maximized light harvesting capacity leads to the realization of hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation. The greatly improved performance of an electrode with light-harvesting capability suggests the proposed route is an effective strategy for electrode materials in photoconversion systems.

    3. Aero-Self-Assembly of Ultrafine Gold Incorporated Silica Nanobunches for NIR-Induced Chemo-Thermal Therapy (pages 2331–2335)

      Jeong Hoon Byeon and Young-Woo Kim

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303752

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      An aero-self-assembly to fabricate Au-SiO2/IBU-PLL functional nanobunches is introduced for the first time for the efficient inhibition of cell proliferation through NIR-induced chemo-thermal therapy. This functional nanoparticle design approach provides useful insights for improving the applica­bility of Au-based hybrid nanoparticles for the development of smart controlled release systems.

    4. One-Pot Synthesis of Platinum Nanocubes on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity (pages 2336–2339)

      Bao Yu Xia, Hao Bin Wu, Ya Yan, Hai Bo Wang and Xin Wang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302648

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      Pt nanocubes/rGO in one pot: Pt nanocubes/rGO hybrids are successfully ­synthesized via a facile one-pot approach. The resultant Pt nanocubes/rGO hybrid exhibits enhanced catalytic activity and excellent electrochemical stability in comparison with commercial Pt/CB electrocatalysts, which can be ascribed to the abundant Pt(100) ­surface and its uniform distribution on rGO.

    5. Small Supported Plasmonic Silver Clusters (pages 2340–2344)

      Martin Thämer, Aras Kartouzian, Philipp Heister, Tobias Lünskens, Sabine Gerlach and Ulrich Heiz

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303158

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      Combining a highly sensitive linear (s-CRD) and a highly surface sensitive nonlinear (s-SHG) spectroscopic method, the optical response of supported silver NPs with an average diameter of ≈1.5 nm are investigated. The observed optical properties are well described by a refined version of the Mie theory that includes direction dependent dielectric constants of the medium surrounding the NPs.

    6. Ultra-Broadband Photodetector for the Visible to Terahertz Range by Self-Assembling Reduced Graphene Oxide-Silicon Nanowire Array Heterojunctions (pages 2345–2351)

      Yang Cao, Jiayi Zhu, Jia Xu, Junhui He, Jia-Lin Sun, Yingxin Wang and Ziran Zhao

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303339

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      Advantages of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and Si nanowire (SiNW) array are integrated into a single photodetector by simple drop-casting of the suspension of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on top of the SiNW array followed by heat-treatment. The RGO-SiNW array heterojunction photodetector is photoresponsive to the visible, near-infrared, mid-infrared, and terahertz wave irradiations at room temperature.

    7. Large Scale Thermal Exfoliation and Functionalization of Boron Nitride (pages 2352–2355)

      Zhenhua Cui, Andrew J. Oyer, A. Jaeton Glover, Hannes C. Schniepp and Douglas H. Adamson

      Version of Record online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303236

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      A scalable method to produce exfoliated and functionalized boron nitride sheets is described. The procedure involves the high temperature treatment of commercially obtained hexagonal boron nitride followed by hydrolysis. A mechanism of formation is proposed and analysis by XRD, FTIR, FESEM, TEM, AFM, XPS, TGA, and Raman spectroscopy reveals exfoliated boron nitride sheets functionalized by hydroxyl groups that can be further reacted with isocyanate.

    8. Graphene Versus Ohmic Metal as Source-Drain Electrode for MoS2 Nanosheet Transistor Channel (pages 2356–2361)

      Young Tack Lee, Kyunghee Choi, Hee Sung Lee, Sung-Wook Min, Pyo Jin Jeon, Do Kyung Hwang, Hyoung Joon Choi and Seongil Im

      Version of Record online: 2 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303908

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      Two MoS2 field-effect transistors are compared using graphene and Au/Ti source-drain contacts in respects of their Ohmic and OFF behavior on an identical MoS2 nanosheet. As a result, graphene-contact appears not only to show superior ohmic behavior to those of Au/Ti but also more enhanced OFF state behavior. Such results are attributed to the electric-field-induced work function tuning of exfoliated graphene.

  7. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
    8. Full Papers
    9. Frontispiece
    10. Full Papers
    1. Polyhydroxylated Metallofullerenols Stimulate IL-1β Secretion of Macrophage through TLRs/MyD88/NF-κB Pathway and NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation (pages 2362–2372)

      Zhiyun Chen, Ying Liu, Baoyun Sun, Han Li, Jinquan Dong, Lijuan Zhang, Liming Wang, Peng Wang, Yuliang Zhao and Chunying Chen

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302825

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Metallofullerenols uptaken by macro­phages can promote the production of inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β by triggering two signaling pathways indepentently. First, fullerenols prime macrophages to express pro-IL-1β via TLRs/MyD88 pathway and subsequently activate NF-κB. Secondly, they activate NLRP3 inflammasome under the assistance of relative factors including K+ efflux, P2X7 receptor activation and ROS in macrophages, which is required for processing pro-IL-1β into mature IL-1β.

  8. Frontispiece

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Communications
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      Optical Materials: Gold Binary-Structured Arrays Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystals and Their Optical Properties (Small 12/2014) (page 2373)

      Guangqiang Liu, Xinhua Li, Wenbo Wang, Fei Zhou, Guotao Duan, Yue Li, Zongke Xu and Weiping Cai

      Version of Record online: 18 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470071

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      Gold binary-structured ordered arrays, built of the hexagonally arranged nanoshells and nanorings, are fabricated based on non-shadow deposition on dualistic monolayer colloidal crystal. On page 2374 W. Cai and colleagues show how such arrays exhibit tunable surface plasmon resonance properties of gold nanoshells and the strong electromagnetic field enhancement effects of gold nanorings, as well as a promising potential for the substrate of surface enhanced Raman scattering-based devices.

  9. Full Papers

    1. Top of page
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    5. Masthead
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    9. Frontispiece
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    1. Gold Binary-Structured Arrays Based on Monolayer Colloidal Crystals and Their Optical Properties (pages 2374–2381)

      Guangqiang Liu, Xinhua Li, Wenbo Wang, Fei Zhou, Guotao Duan, Yue Li, Zongke Xu and Weiping Cai

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303862

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      Gold binary-structured ordered arrays, built of hexagonally arranged nanoshells and nanorings, are fabricated based on non-shadow deposition on a dualistic monolayer colloidal crystal. Such arrays exhibit the tunable surface-plasmon-resonance properties of gold nanoshells and the strong electromagnetic field-enhancement effects of gold nanorings, and have a promising potential as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering-based devices.

    2. Proton-Functionalized Two-Dimensional Graphitic Carbon Nitride Nanosheet: An Excellent Metal-/Label-Free Biosensing Platform (pages 2382–2389)

      Tian Yi Ma, Youhong Tang, Sheng Dai and Shi Zhang Qiao

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303827

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      Proton-functionalized g-C3N4 ultrathin nanosheets with positively charged surface are synthesized by liquid exfoliating acidified bulk g-C3N4. The obtained g-C3N4 nanosheets with 6–12 atomic monolayers and large surface area up to 305 m2 g−1 exhibit outstanding sensitivity and selectivity in the fluorescence-quenching sensing of heparin under both ideal and physiological conditions.

    3. Upconversion Luminescence Resonance Energy Transfer (LRET)-Based Biosensor for Rapid and Ultrasensitive Detection of Avian Influenza Virus H7 Subtype (pages 2390–2397)

      Wei Wei Ye, Ming-Kiu Tsang, Xuan Liu, Mo Yang and Jianhua Hao

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303766

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      An upconversion luminescence resonance energy transfer (LRET) biosensor based on BaGdF5:Yb/Er UCNPs and AuNPs is developed for rapid and ultrasensitive detection of avian influenza virus. Capture oligonucleotide probe and target oligonucleotide specific for H7 sequence are immoboilized on UCNPs and AuNPs, respectively. A low detection of limit (LOD) of 7 pm within 2 h is achieved based on capture-target oligonucleotide hybridization.

    4. Enhanced Field Emission of WS2 Nanotubes (pages 2398–2403)

      G. Viskadouros, A. Zak, M. Stylianakis, E. Kymakis, R. Tenne and E. Stratakis

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303340

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      Tungsten disulfide (WS2) nanotubes protruding on top of microstructures are efficient cathode field emitters with turn-on fields as low as 1 V/μm and field enhancement of a few thousand fold. The high field enhancement and superior reliability suggest potential application of WS2 cold emitters in vacuum nanoelectronics and flat panel displays.

    5. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSNs) for Detoxification of Hazardous Organophorous Chemicals (pages 2404–2412)

      Pengcheng Xu, Shuanbao Guo, Haitao Yu and Xinxin Li

      Version of Record online: 4 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303633

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      Detoxification effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is reported. Based on thermodynamic micro-gravimetric experiment with resonant cantilever sensor and sample trace analyses with solid-state NMR, FT-IR and GC-MS, substitution-reaction based detoxifying/destructing mechanism of the MSNs to toxic organophorous compounds is clearly elucidated and confirmed with detoxification experiment to toxic organophorous pesticide of dichlorvos.

    6. Sensitive Detection of Human Insulin Using a Designed Combined Pore Approach (pages 2413–2418)

      Chang Lei, Owen Noonan, Siddharth Jambhrunkar, Kun Qian, Chun Xu, Jun Zhang, Amanda Nouwens and Chengzhong Yu

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303748

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      A unique approach to combine both large-pore and small-pore materials is developed for the sensitive detection of human insulin. A low detection limit of 0.05 ng mL-1 in artificial urine is achieved, similar to most antibody based analysis protocols.

    7. Oxide Nanostructures Hyperbranched with Thin and Hollow Metal Shells for High-Performance Nanostructured Battery Electrodes (pages 2419–2428)

      Xinhui Xia, Qinqin Xiong, Yongqi Zhang, Jiangping Tu, Chin Fan Ng and Hong Jin Fan

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303958

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      A thin shell helps a lot. Metal oxide nanostructures wrapped with thin and hollow metal shells are fabricated to improve their lithium ion storage properties. The thin metal branches can provide a structural protection of the oxide core and a more conductive path for charge carriers. The specific capacity, rate capability, and capacity retentions are all improved.

    8. Anti-Biofouling Polymer-Decorated Lutetium-Based Nanoparticulate Contrast Agents for In Vivo High-Resolution Trimodal Imaging (pages 2429–2438)

      Zhen Liu, Kai Dong, Jianhua Liu, Xueli Han, Jinsong Ren and Xiaogang Qu

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303909

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      Clinical noninvasive diagnostic imaging generally holds excellent capability in visualizing and understanding various functions in biologic systems. Using PEGylation hybrid lutetium oxide as a novel nanoparticulate contrast agent, high-resolution tri-modal imaging can be achieved both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, detailed long-term retention and toxicity studies indicate the excellent biocompatibility and overall safety of these well-prepared PEG-UCNPs.

    9. Combined Nano- and Micro-Scale Topographic Cues for Engineered Vascular Constructs by Electrospinning and Imprinted Micro-Patterns (pages 2439–2450)

      Maria Moffa, Anna Giovanna Sciancalepore, Laura Gioia Passione and Dario Pisignano

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303179

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      The realization of anisotropic structured scaffolds combining grooved micro-patterns with aligned nanofibers is described. In addition, the effect of the realized scaffolds on the behavior of endothelial cells is analyzed. It is hypothesized that these micro-patterned scaffolds could be useful for the design of synthetic vascular grafts allowing the creation of a confluent and elongated monolayer of endothelial cells analogous to the natural endothelium.

    10. Controllable and Facile Fabrication of Gold Nanostructures for Selective Metal-Assisted Etching of Silicon (pages 2451–2458)

      Xinyue Zhang, Juan Zhu, Xiaopeng Huang, Qiuping Qian, Yonglin He, Lifeng Chi and Yapei Wang

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400087

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      Silicon nanostructures are fabricated by a controllable and facile method that combined organic-vapor-assisted polymer swelling, nanotransfer printing (nTP), and metal-assisted etching. The patterned silicon nanostructures can be also obtained by a patterned stamp through the same method. Both the as-prepared silicon features exhibit the unique optical properties of antireflection and fluorescence.

    11. Nanostructured Polymeric Coatings Based on Chitosan and Dopamine-Modified Hyaluronic Acid for Biomedical Applications (pages 2459–2469)

      Ana I. Neto, Ana C. Cibrão, Clara R. Correia, Rita R. Carvalho, Gisela M. Luz, Gloria G. Ferrer, Gabriela Botelho, Catherine Picart, Natália M. Alves and João F. Mano

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303568

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      Inspired by the structure and composition of adhesive proteins in mussels, dopamine-modified hyaluronic acid is used to form thin and surface-adherent films that presented an enhanced cell adhesion, demonstrating their potential for biomedical applications.

    12. Nanocrystal Skins with Exciton Funneling for Photosensing (pages 2470–2475)

      Shahab Akhavan, Ahmet Fatih Cihan, Berkay Bozok and Hilmi Volkan Demir

      Version of Record online: 5 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303808

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      Photosensitive gradient nanocrystal skins rely on accumulating dissociated excitons after photogenerating and funneling. Excitons funnel along a gradually decreasing band gap gradient of the cascaded nanocrystal monolayers to enhance photosensitivity of the device platform. Substantial improvements are observed in the photosensitivity over a broadband spectral range (350–600 nm), with an approximately twofold enhancement factor along the entire operating wavelength range.

    13. Magneto-Plasmonic Au-Fe Alloy Nanoparticles Designed for Multimodal SERS-MRI-CT Imaging (pages 2476–2486)

      Vincenzo Amendola, Stefano Scaramuzza, Lucio Litti, Moreno Meneghetti, Gaia Zuccolotto, Antonio Rosato, Elena Nicolato, Pasquina Marzola, Giulio Fracasso, Cristina Anselmi, Marcella Pinto and Marco Colombatti

      Version of Record online: 11 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303372

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      Au-Fe alloy nanoparticles provide exceptional benefits for multimodal imaging: simple synthesis, easy conjugation with thiolated molecules, MRI and CT signals for anatomical investigation, optical Raman signals amplified by the SERS effect for high-sensitivity, high-resolution intrasurgical imaging, bio­compatibility, exploitability for in vivo use, and accumulation in tumors by the EPR effect.

      Corrected by:

      Corrigendum: Magneto-Plasmonic Au-Fe Alloy Nanoparticles Designed for Multimodal SERS-MRI-CT Imaging

      Vol. 10, Issue 19, 3823, Version of Record online: 8 OCT 2014

    14. Multifunctional Inverted Nanocone Arrays for Non-Wetting, Self-Cleaning Transparent Surface with High Mechanical Robustness (pages 2487–2494)

      Jeong-Gil Kim, Hyungryul J. Choi, Kyoo-Chul Park, Robert E. Cohen, Gareth H. McKinley and George Barbastathis

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303051

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      Inverted nanocone arrays arranged in an egg-crate structure are fabricated using UV-curable polyurethane acrylate to create a multifunctional transparent surface. The periodic nanotexture provides enhanced anti-reflectivity to broadband illumination together with self-cleaning or anti-fogging characteristics (depending on the specific surface chemistry). The egg-crate structure also confers greatly enhanced mechanical robustness due to redistribution of local stresses amongst the interconnected features.

    15. Polymer Powder Processing of Cryomilled Polycaprolactone for Solvent-Free Generation of Homogeneous Bioactive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (pages 2495–2502)

      Jing Lim, Mark Seow Khoon Chong, Jerry Kok Yen Chan and Swee-Hin Teoh

      Version of Record online: 17 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302389

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      Next-generation polymeric scaffolds require biofunctionalization for tissue remodeling. Cryomilling, a solvent-free approach based on solid phase diffusion, is employed to achieve high percentage, and homogeneous distribution of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in a polycaprolactone matrix. The process reduces size disparity between the two phases at liquid nitrogen temperature, enabling successful composite scaffold fabrication of up to 70 wt% TCP with uniform osteogenic activity.

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