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Cover image for Vol. 10 Issue 13

July 9, 2014

Volume 10, Issue 13

Pages 2505–2734

  1. Cover Picture

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      Zwitterionic Coatings: Zwitterionic-Coated “Stealth” Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications: Recent Advances in Countering Biomolecular Corona Formation and Uptake by the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (Small 13/2014) (page 2505)

      Karina Pombo García, Kristof Zarschler, Lisa Barbaro, José A. Barreto, William O'Malley, Leone Spiccia, Holger Stephan and Bim Graham

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470074

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      The development of nanoparticle assemblies for in vivo applications is hampered by the fact that most nanoparticles are scavenged by the mononuclear phagocyte system, in a process commencing with the rapid adsorption of serum proteins, including antibodies, to their surface. On page 2516, L. Spiccia, H. Stephan, B. Graham, and colleagues summarize the recent efforts to develop zwitterionic-coatings, which resist the formation of such a “biomolecular corona”, providing promising platforms for future nanomedicine design.

  2. Inside Front Cover

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      Liquid Films: Precisely Patterning Graphene Sheets through a Liquid-Bridge Induced Strategy (Small 13/2014) (page 2506)

      Xiaonan Kan, Bin Su and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470075

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      A liquid-bridge induced precisely positioning strategy for graphene patterning is reported on page 2570. Thanks to on-demand assembly of graphene sheets by this strategy, a flexible bending-sensitive circuit can be generated, allowing electrons stop/pass this graphene-based circuit depending on mechanical pressing/relaxing. X. Kan, B. Su, and L. Jiang believe that the present approach will advance existing applications of patterning graphenes in optical/electronic industry.

  3. Back Cover

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      Neuronal Networks: Assembly of Functional Three-Dimensional Neuronal Networks on a Microchip (Small 13/2014) (page 2736)

      Zhuo Huang, Yi Sun, Wenwen Liu, Wei Zhang, Wenfu Zheng and Xingyu Jiang

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470079

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      A straightforward method to construct a structurally and functionally biomimetic 3D neuronal network on a microchip is presented on page 2530 by W. Zheng, X. Jiang, and co-workers, realizing highly ordered neuronal arrangement and guidance in structures and recordable neuronal activities simultaneously. Microchamber-assisted assembly of microspheres as scaffold supports the development of neuronal networks and microgrooves guide interconnections between networks. The structure shows spontaneous activities like those found in the brain. This approach shows promising applications in fundamental neuroscience, tissue engineering, and brain-machine interface.

  4. Masthead

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      Masthead: (Small 13/2014)

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470078

  5. Contents

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      Contents: (Small 13/2014) (pages 2507–2515)

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470076

  6. Corrigendum

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      Hierarchical Tubular Structures Constructed by Carbon-coated α-Fe2O3 Nanorods for Highly Reversible Lithium (page 2515)

      Guoxin Gao, Le Yu, Hao Bin Wu and Xiong Wen (David) Lou

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201401605

      This article corrects:
  7. Reviews

    1. Top of page
    2. Cover Picture
    3. Inside Front Cover
    4. Back Cover
    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
    8. Reviews
    9. Communications
    10. Full Papers
    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. Zwitterionic-Coated “Stealth” Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications: Recent Advances in Countering Biomolecular Corona Formation and Uptake by the Mononuclear Phagocyte System (pages 2516–2529)

      Karina Pombo García, Kristof Zarschler, Lisa Barbaro, José A. Barreto, William O'Malley, Leone Spiccia, Holger Stephan and Bim Graham

      Version of Record online: 31 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303540

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      Cloak of invisibility. The coating of nanoparticles with zwitterionic species limits the non-specific adsorption of biomolecules to their surface and enables them to evade phagocytosis, opening up a promising route for the development of clinically-approved nanoparticle-based theranostic agents with fewer off-target effects.

  8. Communications

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    7. Corrigendum
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    1. Assembly of Functional Three-Dimensional Neuronal Networks on a Microchip (pages 2530–2536)

      Zhuo Huang, Yi Sun, Wenwen Liu, Wei Zhang, Wenfu Zheng and Xingyu Jiang

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400513

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      A method to produce a structurally and functionally biomimetic three-dimensional neuronal network on a microchip is reported, combining microchamber-assisted, astrocyte-enhanced assembly of glass microspheres as scaffold and microgroove-guided multi-layered neurite connections. Spontaneous neuronal activities of the interconnected neuronal networks are also recorded. This approach shows promising applications in fundamental neuroscience, tissue engineering, and brain-machine interface.

    2. Conductance Switching in Single Wired Redox Proteins (pages 2537–2541)

      Juan M. Artés, Montserrat López-Martínez, Ismael Díez-Pérez, Fausto Sanz and Pau Gorostiza

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303753

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      Switching events in the current flowing through individual redox proteins, (azurin) spontaneously wired between two electrodes, are studied using an electrochemical scanning tunneling microscope (ECSTM). These switching events in the current–time trace are characterized using conductance histograms, and reflect the intrinsic redox thermodynamic dispersion in the azurin population. This conductance switching may pose limitations to miniaturizing redox protein-based devices.

    3. Micromotor Enhanced Microarray Technology for Protein Detection (pages 2542–2548)

      Eden Morales-Narváez, Maria Guix, Mariana Medina-Sánchez, Carmen C. Mayorga-Martinez and Arben Merkoçi

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303068

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      Microengines meet microarray technology. The transport of a target molecule toward a sensing surface can play a critical role in biodetection performance. The mixing induced by the motion of self-propelled micromotors can assist such transport and consequently enhance the performance of surface–based biosensing systems, particularly in microarray–based immunosensing that can be extended to DNA and cell analysis.

    4. Surface Microfluidic Patterning and Transporting Organic Small Molecules (pages 2549–2552)

      Hong Wang, Wenchong Wang, Liqiang Li, Juan Zhu, Wenxin Wang, Deqing Zhang, Zhaoxiong Xie, Harald Fuchs, Yong Lei and Lifeng Chi

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400360

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      A microfluidic method is developed to pattern organic small molecules directly in air. When heated to above its melting point, a powder melts into liquid drops which propagate along the pattern area. The method can further be applied to transport other dye molecules, to create multicolored patterns in one step. The fluorescence microscopy image shows rhodamine B (red), fluorescein (green), and calcein blue (blue) doped N-ethyl-d-glucamine on 100-μm Au lines.

    5. An Entropic Force Microscope Enables Nano-Scale Conformational Probing of Biomolecules (pages 2553–2557)

      Nan Shi and Victor M. Ugaz

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303046

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      Inherently disordered dynamics governing macromolecular transport under nanoconfined surroundings can paradoxically be precisely controlled. This capability lays a foundation for a sensitive probe of nanoscale molecular conformation, revealing previously unseen details about DNA-protein binding interactions at size scales below the limits of most conventional techniques.

    6. Biologically Inspired Biophotonic Surfaces with Self-Antireflection (pages 2558–2563)

      Young-Jae Oh, Jae-Jun Kim and Ki-Hun Jeong

      Version of Record online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303876

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      Biologically inspired biophotonic surfaces with self-antireflection for highly sensitive biosensing and bioimaging are reported. The effective index of large-area glass nanopillar arrays spontaneously meets an antireflection condition when a solution with diverse index surrounds the nanopillars. The bio-inspired biophotonic surfaces enable not only highly intense fluorescence or surface enhanced Raman scattering but also high contrast imaging due to the self-antireflection.

    7. Magnetically Assembled Ni@Ag Urchin-Like Ensembles with Ultra-Sharp Tips and Numerous Gaps for SERS Applications (pages 2564–2569)

      Dequan Liu, Xi Wang, Deyan He, Thang Duy Dao, Tadaaki Nagao, Qunhong Weng, Daiming Tang, Xuebin Wang, Wei Tian, Dmitri Golberg and Yoshio Bando

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303857

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      Ni@Ag urchin-like assemblies are synthesized. The tips of these products are as tiny as 10 nm, arm apex angles are 39°, and a large amount of “crossing areas” between urchin-like particles are produced due to peculiar magnetically induced assembling. These advantages make them powerful SERS probes for chemical and biological analyses.

    8. Precisely Patterning Graphene Sheets through a Liquid-Bridge Induced Strategy (pages 2570–2577)

      Xiaonan Kan, Bin Su and Lei Jiang

      Version of Record online: 26 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303903

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      A liquid-bridge induced precisely positioning strategy for graphene patterning is reported. Owing to well-defined assembly of graphene, a flexible bending-sensitive circuit is generated, allowing electrons to stop/pass this graphene-based circuit depending on mechanical pressing/relaxing. The present approach may advance existing applications of patterning graphene in the optical/electronic industry.

    9. Bio-Inspired High-Performance Antireflection and Antifogging Polymer Films (pages 2578–2582)

      Juan Li, Jie Zhu and Xuefeng Gao

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303910

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      Bio-inspired high-performance broadband wide-angle antireflection and superhydrophilic antifogging polymer films can be obtained by precisely controlling the periods and heights of a moth-eye nanostructure via the customized alumina template based nanoimprinting technology followed by depositing a thin layer of hydrophilic silica nanoparticles.

    10. Highly Flexible and Adaptable, All-Solid-State Supercapacitors Based on Graphene Woven-Fabric Film Electrodes (pages 2583–2588)

      Xiaobei Zang, Qiao Chen, Peixu Li, Yijia He, Xiao Li, Miao Zhu, Xinming Li, Kunlin Wang, Minlin Zhong, Dehai Wu and Hongwei Zhu

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303738

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      Unique structural characteristics of graphene woven structures afford additional internal surface between the electrode material and the polymer gel electrolyte, which provides abundant active surface for the absorption and desorption of electrolyte ions, eventually improving the electrochemical performance of devices. Highly flexible and adaptable, all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene woven-fabric films are demonstrated.

    11. Band Gap-Tunable Molybdenum Sulfide Selenide Monolayer Alloy (pages 2589–2594)

      Sheng-Han Su, Yu-Te Hsu, Yung-Huang Chang, Ming-Hui Chiu, Chang-Lung Hsu, Wei-Ting Hsu, Wen-Hao Chang, Jr-Hau He and Lain-Jong Li

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201302893

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      The optical energy gap of as-grown MoS2 flakes from chemical vapor deposition can be modulated from 1.86 eV (667 nm) to 1.57 eV (790 nm) by a vapor phase selenization process. This approach, replacing one chalcogen by another in the gas phase, is promising in modulating the optical and electronic properties of other transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers.

    12. Generation of Fully-Covering Hierarchical Micro-/Nano- Structures by Nanoimprinting and Modified Laser Swelling (pages 2595–2601)

      Jinyou Shao, Yucheng Ding, Wenjun Wang, Xuesong Mei, Haipeng Zhai, Hongmiao Tian, Xiangming Li and Bin Liu

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303656

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      A facile technique for the fabrication of fully-covering multiscale structures surfaces by nanoimprinting and modified laser swelling is presented. The approach is proved to be capable of generating regular and adjustable dome-like hierarchical structures, and it is used to create nature-inspired, multiscale functional surfaces with tunable wettability.

  9. Full Papers

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    5. Masthead
    6. Contents
    7. Corrigendum
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    11. Frontispiece
    12. Full Papers
    1. A Quantitative Study of the Intracellular Dynamics of Fluorescently Labelled Glyco-Gold Nanoparticles via Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (pages 2602–2610)

      Richard A. Murray, Yuan Qiu, Fabrizio Chiodo, Marco Marradi, Soledad Penadés and Sergio E. Moya

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303604

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      The dynamic behavior of gold nanoparticles functionalized with glucose is studied by means of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Meaningful data on the state of aggregation and dynamics of these nanoparticles in the intracellular environment are obtained. FCS measurements become possible after applying a “prebleaching” methodology when an immobile fraction of NPs is effectively removed and thus allowing significant FCS data to be recorded.

    2. Nanostructuring of Nickel Hydroxide via a Template Solution Approach for Efficient Electrochemical Devices (pages 2611–2617)

      Li Guo, Yi Ren, Junyi Liu, Sing Yang Chiam and Wai Kin Chim

      Version of Record online: 14 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303889

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      Nickel hydroxide nanowire arrays are directly grown on ITO/glass substrates using AAO templated synthesis. Three types of nickel hydroxide structures, consisting of open-ended and close-ended nanowires and thin films, are fabricated. The open-ended nanowires demonstrate superior transmittance modulation and faster activation when compared with the thin film and close-ended structures.

    3. Co@Co3O4 Core–Shell Three-Dimensional Nano-Network for High-Performance Electrochemical Energy Storage (pages 2618–2624)

      Junli Zhang, Jiecai Fu, Junwei Zhang, Hongbin Ma, Yongmin He, Fashen Li, Erqing Xie, Desheng Xue, Haoli Zhang and Yong Peng

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303926

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      An alternative route to construct a novel architecture, conductive metal/transition oxide (Co@Co3O4) core–shell three-dimensional nano-network (3DN) by surface oxidating Co 3DN in situ, for high-performance electrochemical capacitors, is presented. It is believed that the good electrochemical behavior mainly originates from its extremely high specific surface area and core-Co “conductive network”.

    4. Transforming Hair into Heteroatom-Doped Carbon with High Surface Area (pages 2625–2636)

      Kiran N. Chaudhari, Min Young Song and Jong-Sung Yu

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303831

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      High surface area porous conductive carbon with doped heteroatoms is prepared from hair and applied as a metal-free cathode catalyst. Excellent ORR activity in alkaline medium is observed, which is addressed in terms of heteroatom content, conductivity, and surface area. Its excellent durability and methanol tolerance compared to commercial Pt/C demonstrates its worthiness as a promising alternative to Pt-based catalysts.

    5. Selective Formation of Carbon-Coated, Metastable Amorphous ZnSnO3 Nanocubes Containing Mesopores for Use as High-Capacity Lithium-Ion Battery (pages 2637–2644)

      Fei Han, Wen-Cui Li, Cheng Lei, Bin He, Kyoichi Oshida and An-Hui Lu

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400371

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      Carbon-coated amorphous ZnSnO3 nanocubes with well-developed mesoporosity are synthesized and the core–shell particles are linked into an interconnected conductive framework. This ZnSnO3-based anode exhibits an outstanding lithium storage performance, especially a high reversible capacity of 1060 mA h g−1 because of the integration of alloying and conversion reaction processes (reversible transformation of Li4.4Sn and LiZn alloys to pristine ZnSnO3).

    6. The Effect of Plasmonic Nanoparticles on the Optoelectronic Characteristics of CdTe Nanowires (pages 2645–2652)

      Lin-Bao Luo, Xiao-Li Huang, Ming-Zheng Wang, Chao Xie, Chun-Yan Wu, Ji-Gang Hu, Li Wang and Jian-An Huang

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303388

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      The influence of the plasmonic nanoparticles on device performance of individual CdTe nanowire based photodetector is studied. Both theoretical simulation and experimental studies reveal that the modified metal nanoparticles exhibit obvious localized surface plasmon resonance, leading to improved device performance, broadened spectral selectivity, and fastened response speed.

    7. Experimental Evidence of Rapid Water Transport through Carbon Nanotubes Embedded in Polymeric Desalination Membranes (pages 2653–2660)

      Hee Dae Lee, Hyo Won Kim, Young Hoon Cho and Ho Bum Park

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303945

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      Future membranes: Experimental evidence of rapid water transport is demonstrated in randomly oriented carbon nanotube (CNT)-embedded polyamide thin-film composite membranes. Systematic investigation shows rapid water transport through inner the CNTs with hydrophilic functionalized and open-ended structural properties. These results could provide a direction for research into CNTs-based highly water-permeable desalination membranes in the near future.

  10. Frontispiece

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      Fuel Cells: Nano-Intermetallic AuCu3 Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction: Performance and Mechanism (Small 13/2014) (page 2661)

      Nanlin Zhang, Xin Chen, Yuanjun Lu, Li An, Xiang Li, Dingguo Xia, Ze Zhang and Jixue Li

      Version of Record online: 2 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201470077

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      Au-segregated intermetallic AuCu3/C nanoparticles with uniform dispersion and narrow size distribution around 3 nm are reported by D. Xia, J. Li, and colleagues on page 2662. These nanoparticles have excellent catalytic performance for ORR in alkaline solution, excellent durability, as well as methanol tolerance activities. The enhanced activities mainly result from the synergetic effects between electroactive Au and Cu atoms on the particle surface: Cu activates O2 adsorption, and Au promotes OH–desorption.

  11. Full Papers

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    1. Nano-Intermetallic AuCu3 Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction: Performance and Mechanism (pages 2662–2669)

      Nanlin Zhang, Xin Chen, Yuanjun Lu, Li An, Xiang Li, Dingguo Xia, Ze Zhang and Jixue Li

      Version of Record online: 27 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201400068

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      Au-segregated intermetallic AuCu3/C nano­particles with uniform dispersion and narrow size distribution around 3 nm are reported, which have excellent catalytic performance for ORR in alkaline solution, excellent durability as well as methanol tolerance activities. The enhanced activities mainly result from the synergetic effects between electroactive Au and Cu atoms on the particle surface: Cu activates O2 adsorption, and Au promotes OH desorption.

    2. Mimicking Bubble Use in Nature: Propulsion of Janus Particles due to Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Interactions (pages 2670–2677)

      Bat-El Pinchasik, Helmuth Möhwald and Andre G. Skirtach

      Version of Record online: 24 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303571

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      The ladybird beetle (Coccinellidae) can walk on solid substrates underwater due to bubbles entrapped under a hair-like structure in its legs. Other animals such as the purple snail (Janthina janthina) use stable bubbles in order to float at the air/water interface of the ocean. Both mechanisms are based on hydrophobic–hydrophilic interactions, minimization of surface tension, and buoyancy. Mimicry of these principles is used to propel and localize Janus particles in water.

    3. Co-Delivery of Doxorubicin and siRNA with Reduction and pH Dually Sensitive Nanocarrier for Synergistic Cancer Therapy (pages 2678–2687)

      Weicai Chen, Yuanyuan Yuan, Du Cheng, Jifeng Chen, Lu Wang and Xintao Shuai

      Version of Record online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303951

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      A dually reduction- and pH-sensitive nanocarrier for co-delivery of an anticancer drug and siRNA is described. The nanocarrier rapidly releases siRNA and the drug inside lysosomes of cancer cells. The two co-delivered therapeutic agents act synergistically to suppress tumor growth in mice.

    4. Positron Emitting Magnetic Nanoconstructs for PET/MR Imaging (pages 2688–2696)

      Santosh Aryal, Jaehong Key, Cinzia Stigliano, Melissa D. Landis, Daniel Y. Lee and Paolo Decuzzi

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303933

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      Long-circulating positron-emitting magnetic nanoconstructs (PEM) are designed to image solid tumors for combined PET/MRI. These long-circulating PEMs with high transversal relaxivity and tumor accumulation may allow detailed interrogation over multiple scales in a clinically relevant setting.

    5. Correlation between Anisotropy and Lattice Distortions in Single Crystal Calcite Nanowires Grown in Confinement (pages 2697–2702)

      Andreas Verch, Alexander S. Côté, Robert Darkins, Yi-Yeoun Kim, Renée van de Locht, Fiona C. Meldrum, Dorothy M. Duffy and Roland Kröger

      Version of Record online: 18 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303839

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      Single crystal calcite nanowires grown in confinement reveal the importance of surface stress and anisotropy for the elastic properties of such structures. Transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction in conjunction with finite element simulations are employed to quantify lattice rotations in these nanostructures and to identify an important mechanism for lattice distortions in defect free nanowires.

    6. Hierarchical 3D SERS Substrates Fabricated by Integrating Photolithographic Microstructures and Self-Assembly of Silver Nanoparticles (pages 2703–2711)

      Qi Zhang, Yih Hong Lee, In Yee Phang, Choon Keong Lee and Xing Yi Ling

      Version of Record online: 10 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303773

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      Hierarchical 3D surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates fabricated by integrating the two-photon photolithography and Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of Ag nanocubes are reported, and their SERS efficiency is systematically studied. This design extends the SERS hotspots into the third dimension along the z-axis. In particular, the ­tolerance of the z-direction SERS ­hotspots is increased from the nanometer to micrometer length scale. This phenomenon is applied to encrypt information in the form of micrometer-sized binary barcodes.

    7. Exploring Sialic Acid Receptors-Related Infection Behavior of Avian Influenza Virus in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells by Single-Particle Tracking (pages 2712–2720)

      Zhi-Gang Wang, Shu-Lin Liu, Zhi-Ling Zhang, Zhi-Quan Tian, Hong-Wu Tang and Dai-Wen Pang

      Version of Record online: 20 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303532

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      Avian influenza H9N2 virus can infect human bronchial epithelial cells directly. The virus infection process is an actin filament- and microtubule-dependent process with a three-stage pattern. The intracellular transport of sialic acid receptors also follows a similar process.

    8. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based High-Throughput Screening of the Genotoxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials (pages 2721–2734)

      Giuseppe Vecchio, Michael Fenech, Pier Paolo Pompa and Nicolas H. Voelcker

      Version of Record online: 7 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201303359

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      A new high-throughput screening (HTS) platform is reported based on the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay, lab-on-chip cell sorting, and automated image analysis. This HTS-CBMN assay coupled with our lab-on-a-chip platform can be applied to cells from different tissue sources and organisms, offering unique insights into genotoxicity testing of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs).

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